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COMPUTER APPLICATION

This is a proper recognition and understanding of the computer appreciation ultimate guild that involved in the data processing.

COMPUTER APPLICATION

Contents

 

In this tutorial, I am going to talk about COMPUTER APPLICATION in full details.

This is a proper recognition and understanding of the computer appreciation ultimate guild that involved in the data processing.

What is a computer?

A computer is an electronic machine that can receive data, processing of data, store data and display data depending on the information that the instructor gives the computer to process.

What is the computer system?

COMPUTER SYSTEM is defined as a combination of body components together to form a computer system

                                               A computer is an electronic machine that can receive data, processing of data, store data and display data depending on the information that the instructor gives the computer to process.

 

COMPUTER CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO SUB BASIC SYSTEM

  1.  The Computer Software

  2.  The Computer Hardware

 

Computer Software

Computer software is not a physical part of a computer, this mainly includes programming, which is divided into two.

Type of computer software

Type of computer software

  1. Operating software system
  2. Application software system

 

1.  Operating software system

 The operating system which is known as the OS of a computer is the system software that manages the computer hardware.

 The operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.

2.  Application software system

The application software is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity.

Application, they far differ from an operating system which runs a computer, a utility which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores, and a programming tool with which computer programs are created.

Computer Hardware

The computer hardware is the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as a cabinet, central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.

COMPONENT OF MOTHERBOARD

COMPONENT OF MOTHERBOARD

  1. Expansion Card or Video and Sound Card
  2. Power Pack
  3. Power Pack Receptor
  4. Visser
  5. I. S. A. (Industrial Standard Architecture)
  6. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnecting)
  7. SIMM is the Simple Incine Memory Module
  8. DIMM is the Dual Inline Memory Module
  9. Hard Disk
  10. I. C. (Integrated Circuit)
  11. Flopping Drive
  12. C. O. Ram
  13. I. D. E. I. Primary Device Electronic
  14. I. D. E 2 Secondary Device Electronic
  15. Peripheral Port
  16. BIOS – Basic Input and Output System
  17. Cable
  18. Cooler and Processor
  19. Lever
  20. Boxes
  21. Capacitor
  22. Inductor
  23. RAM (Random Access Memory)
  24. Ethyl Battery
  25. Component Header and Jumper

 

FUNCTION OF THE COMPONENT

video card

What is the video card

Video Card is fixed on the vessel which is connected to the monitor for usual display. that connects to a laptop motherboard. It is used to create an image on a display, without a video card, you would now not be able to see this page.

sound card

What is the sound card

Sound Card is fixed either I. S. A or P. C. I and is connected to the Video CD, Radio etc, for music the P.C.I fasten processor. Sound cards use a digital-to-analogue converter DAC, which converts recorded or generated digital sign statistics into an analogue format. The output sign is linked to an amplifier, headphones, or exterior machine the use of general interconnects, such as a TRS smartphone connector.

Type of sound card

Internal Sound card

External Sound card

what is the internal Sound card

A sound card also recognised as an audio card is an internal enlargement card that gives input and output of audio signals to and from a pc underneath manipulate of computer programs.

The term sound card is additionally applied to external audio interfaces used for professional audio applications.

What is the External Sound card

The external sound card is a fantastically useful piece of tools for computers and offices. Its numerous functions and elements allow it to flip any average pc into a full home-theatre audio solution.

I. D. E

What is IDE

I. D. E This is where the integrated device electronic cable is fixed and connected to the hard disk and CD Ram.  The Hard Disk is where Programme package in-store. Or Integrated development environments are designed to maximize programmer productivity by providing tight-knit components with similar user interfaces. IDEs present a single program in which all development is done.

what is the Power Pack Receptor 

Power Pack Receptor Allow only 220V and Convert into 12V and send it to the power pack receptor. The power receptor sends the 12V to another component of the motherboard.  Power receptor pack is made up of two.  AT and ATX.

Type of power supply

What is AT

The AT form thing referred to the dimensions and sketch (form factor) of the motherboard for the IBM AT. Like the IBM PC and IBM XT fashions earlier than it, many third-party manufacturers produced motherboards compatible with the IBM AT structure factor, permitting stop customers to upgrade their computers for faster processors.

What is ATX

Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) is a motherboard and strength provide configuration specification developed by way of Intel to enhance on preceding de facto requirements like the AT design.

ATX allowed each motherboard producer to put these ports in a rectangular location on the lower back of the gadget with an association they could define themselves, although several accepted patterns relying on what ports the motherboard gives have been observed using most manufacturers. Cases are commonly geared up with a snap-out panel, additionally regarded as an I/O plate or I/O shield, in one of the frequent arrangements.

SIMM RAM

What is the SIMM RAM

The SIMM (single in-line memory module) is a module containing one or several random access memory (RAM) chips on a small circuit board with pins that connect to the computer motherboard.

Since the more RAM, your computer has, the less frequently it will need to access your secondary storage (for example, hard disk or CD-ROM), PC owners sometimes expand RAM by installing additional SIMMs.

The SIMMs commonly come with a 32 data bit (36 bits counting parity bits) direction to the pc that requires a 72-pin connector. SIMMs commonly come in memory chip multiples of four megabytes.

SIMM RAM Contain 72 pin whole DIMM Ram contains 84 Pin in using one Cable to connect CD RAM and Hard Disk either the hard disk the slave or the Master.

bios

 

What are the bios

Bios is the manufacturer of information and storage.

BIOS is an integral part of your computer and comes with it when you bring it home. (In contrast, the operating system can either be pre-installed by the manufacturer or vendor or installed by the user.) BIOS is a program that is made accessible to the microprocessor on an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) chip.

what is computer Component Header

This is where the jumper and the external component are fixed.  This is also where the power button wire is connected.

computer Process

what is computer Process

This is where the data processing passes through to the component of the motherboard.

A process is the instance of a computer program that is being executed by one or many threads. It contains the program code and its activity. Depending on the operating system (OS), a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently.

computer IC

What is computer IC

The integrated circuit, or IC, is a small chip that can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, microprocessor, or even computer memory. An IC is a small wafer, usually made of silicon, that can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors.

computer Inductor

What is computer Inductor

The inductor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of a magnetic field. In its simplest form, an inductor consists of a wire loop or coil. The inductance is directly proportional to the number of turns in the coil.

computer Lever

What is computer Lever

A lever is simply a plank or ridged beam that is free to rotate on a pivot. It is perfect for lifting or moving heavy things. It is a very useful simple machine, and you can find them everywhere. Good examples of levers include the seesaw, crowbar, fishing-line, oars, wheelbarrows and the garden shovel.

computer Processor

What is computer Processor

A processor, or “microprocessor,” is a small chip that resides in computers and other electronic devices. Its basic job is to receive input and provide the appropriate output.

Peripheral Port

What is computer Peripheral Port

When referring to a physical device, a hardware port or peripheral port is a hole or connection found on the front or back of a computer. Ports allow computers to access external devices such as printers.

Ethyl Battery

What is computer Ethyl Battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications.

 

The Visser: This is where the monitor is been connected.

D-RAM

What is D-RAM

RAM is random access memory (RAM) that retains data bits in its memory as long as power is being supplied. Unlike dynamic RAM (DRAM), which stores bits in cells consisting of a capacitor and a transistor, SRAM does not have to be periodically refreshed.

C-RAM 

What is C-RAM 

The C-RAM has more threats to defend against than its seafaring brethren-specifically, mortars—therefore it employs additional tracking sensors, including the Army’s Lightweight Counter Mortar Radar (LCMR) and Q-36 Target Acquisition Radar (AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder Radar). These can target, track, prioritize, and eliminate multiple incoming rounds before they hit the ground. They also include a warning system for nearby troops.

computer Processor Socket

What is computer Processor Socket

The Motherboards are subcategorized by the type of processor socket they have. The processor socket (also called a CPU socket) is the connector on the motherboard that houses a CPU and forms the electrical interface and contact with the CPU. Processor sockets use a pin grid array (PGA) where pins on the underside of the processor connect to holes in the processor socket. Computers based on the Intel x86 architecture include socket processors.

Flopping Disk Connector

What is Flopping Disk Connector

This is the point at which the flopping disk is connected to the mother beard. It looks like the IDE connector but made of 34pins while the IDE connector is made of 40pins for a tropical Pentium there is only one flopping disk connector and flopping disk can supply two flopping diskettes in a system.

Component Header

What is Component Header

The mother beard has some component integrated to them instead of using an expansion card. These component are known as onboard to the motherboard, they are in the form of pins these are ribbon cable which is used to connect the component system.

computer Jumper

What is computer Jumper

These are pins on the motherboard that are set to charge the configuration and behaviour of the system. Jumpers are a component used to enable or disenable according to t the motherboard. The jumper can be (red)(white)or(black) in colour and some other one have transfer which is from the electric component to the chip-set.

computer Inductor

What is computer Inductor

The inductor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of a magnetic field. In its simplest form, an inductor consists of a wire loop or coil. The inductance is directly proportional to the number of turns in the coil.

computer Capacitor

What is computer Capacitor

 The computer capacitor is a component made of two or sets of two conductive plates with a thin insulator between them and wrapped in a ceramic and plastic container. When the capacitor receives a DC (direct current), a positive charge builds up on the plate (or set of plates) while a negative charge builds upon the other. This charge, which is measured in microfarads on a computer capacitor, remains in the capacitor until it is discharged. In the image, is an example of what a capacitor may look like on a computer motherboard.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MOTHERBOARD BASE ON AGE

 

The Motherboard has some through different series in technology. These are the manufacturer of the motherboard:

  1. INTEL
  2. MERCURY
  3. ZI-COM
  4. PILE
  5. Is Pro i
  6. SAMSUNG
  7. COMPACT
  8. VS Pro ii

 

  1. The motherboard can be classified base on age technology. The classification is base on the microcomputer the first of motherboard which was manufacture to the world is known as 8086 motherboards. The 8086 motherboard has everything integrated I.C stored to the RAMs still was solder to the motherboard because of this 8086. The motherboard does not allow ram for upgrading. The 8086 motherboard allows 8 bit of data per seconds as the data switch.  The 8086 motherboard is very slow and it does not generate heat. The disadvantage is that whenever the processor is bad, that will be the end of the motherboard likewise the RAM.

 

  1. THE SECOND: The Second class of the motherboard is being used with a microcomputer these are 80286 motherboards.  

 

  1. Due to the improvement of technology and to increase the efficiency of the motherboard that comes to 80386 motherboard, the 386 motherboard, there has additional memory know as cool processor. 

 

  1. 80486 motherboard: It’s carried out 32 bit of data as a motherboard.  It can now be writing on socket 1, 2, 3, 4 on 80486 motherboards.

 

  1. PENTIUM I: Support 64 bit of data.  It can be writing socket 7, 8 in this Pentium I motherboard.  There are some old version may be writing on the socket 5, socket support clock speed in the socket 5, clocks means that the rate at which the processor used to execute the given clock.

 

  1. THE PENTIUM II: Motherboard in this Pentium II, its support with 64 bit of data in the data box switch in Pentium II motherboard, you will not found the socket except slot the processor that used slot came in a cartage form.

 

  1. PENTIUM III: Motherboard support 64 bit of data carried out short and socket.  It can be written as P. G. A 370.

 

  1. PENTIUM IV: It supports 128 bit of data.  In that Pentium 4, you can still find a socket and slot; there are some Pentium which you can find only the socket.  It can be writing P. G. A. 470.  That P. G. A. means Pin Grade Array.

 

 

WHAT IS MOTHERBOARD

The motherboard is a printed circuit board and foundation of a computer that is the biggest board in a computer chassis. It allocates power and allows communication to the CPU, RAM, and all other computer hardware components.

What is INPUT AND OUTPUT UNIT

An input device sends information to a computer system for processing, and an output device reproduces or displays the results of that processing. Input devices only allow for input of data to a computer and output devices receive the output of data from another device.

What is MEMORY UNIT

The Memory Unit is the part of the computer that holds data and instructions for processing. Although it is closely associated with the CPU, in fact it is separate from it. The memory associated with the CPU is also called primary storage, primary memory, main storage, internal storage and main memory.

 

What is the CONTROL UNIT

The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor. It tells the computer’s memory, arithmetic and logic unit and input and output devices how to respond to the instructions that have been sent to the processor.

What is ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT

The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers. This is in contrast to a floating-point unit (FPU), which operates on floating-point numbers. An ALU is a fundamental building block of many types of computing circuits, including the central processing unit (CPU) of computers, FPUs, and graphics processing units (GPUs). A single CPU, FPU or GPU may contain multiple ALUs.

 

DEFINITION OF COMPUTER

 

The computer is an electronic apparatus which by any means install instruction and information perform rapidly often complex, calculate, correlate and select data.

Basically of Computer can be thought of like a machine that can be manipulated, information, number and character, this information is been installed as data.

 

What is COMMUNICATION

Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place, person or group to another.

Every communication involves (at least) one sender, a message and a recipient. This may sound simple, but communication is a very complex subject.

 

EXPLANATION SLOT OR EXPLANATION CARD

These are the point at which the external devices are connected such as Printer, Mouse, Scanner, Modem, etc. are connected to the motherboard.  These are two major types of explanation slot.

 

  1. C. I AND I. S. A.

 

  1. P. C. I.: It can be white and is on the largest speed.  The speed at which P. C. I. uses to a giving fast is much than the I. S. A.

 

  1. I. S. A.: Is the longest of the system board is slower than P. C. I.  and black.

 

HOW TO ELECTROGRAM YOURSELF

You must electro gram yourself before you can work on the motherboard or touch M. B. as an engineer.  There are some setting you need not damage before you can work on the motherboard, you must discharge electrostatics electricity in your body through electronic programming yourself.  You can electrogram yourself in two ways.

 

  1. You must use anti-waist band or waistband and wear the waistband on your hand before you can work on the motherboard, and the waistband is very expensive.

 

  1. The second method is to connect your system and make sure that the system is turn off or switch off, and remove the metal cover from the casing and hold the unpainted part for five minutes before you can now work on a motherboard.

 

What is  CASHIM MEMORY

A Cashim Memory is a messenger to the processor.  Four things are responsible for your system.

 

  1. Processor Speed
  2. Cashel Memory
  3. Data Box
  4. RAM

 

GENERAL INSTRUCTION TO THE PROCESSOR

The processor is a chipset large seat which contains Arithmetic and Logic Unit.  The Data Arithmetic and Logic Unit is to process data, get information which the Control Unit is to control activities on a computer system.  Inside the processor, there is temporary memory which one used to hold data whenever the processor is busy to hold data particularly commodity or information.

 

Note:  All Pentium processor has register inside them.

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE PROCESSOR

The following are the duty of the Processor:

  1. Processor allocate resources
  2. Mathematics operation/sharing the data
  3. Logical
  4. For controlling the hardware

 

ABOUT THE MOUSE

We have two (2) types of mouse

  1. P/S2
  2. Serial Mouse is bigger than P/S2 mouse and the port

 

KEYBOARD

  1. P/S2 keyboard
  2. A. T Key Board
  3. P. U BASIC

 

The processor communicates with another device on the board through the aim of buses.  The bus can be defined as the interconnected wire on the motherboard through which data flows from one component to the other.  The following are three main buses use by the processor.

 

  1. Data To Bus
  2. Address Bus
  3. Control Bus

 

 

IDE INTER-CONNECT DEVICE

     
  
  
DATA BUS
 
  
ADDRESS BUS
 

 

CONTROL BUS

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE C.P.U

 

What is the DATA BUS  

Data Bus is used by the processor. Whenever the processor needs a computer or device that also communicate with the processor through the address bus.

 

What is the CONTROL BUS  

The control bus is used by the processor for contacting the device or component.  The following are the signals used by the Control Bus (Control Signals).

  1. Reading and writing function
  2. P. U Status
  3. Interrupt Channel
  4. M. A. (Direct Memory Address Access)
  5. Purity Checking
  6. Cache Operation
  7. Test and Reset

 

Reading and writing the function

The reading and writing control bus unit is used by the processor whenever the processor needs information from the memory to the device.

 

What is  C.P.U Status

is used by the device to know when the processor is not busy, implies that device or component used this sequence to know when the processor resources are force or when the processor is busy.

 

What is Interrupt Channel

It is used by the processor to order for the component or device that used interrupt address bus to share resources with the processor.

 

What is computer DMA

Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).

 

What is computer Purity Checking

 The Control signal use purity code to set processor for a password.

 

What is Cashe Operation

This control signal uses the cache operation, Whenever the processor needs the operation of the  control signal used by the processor. Or whenever the processor needs an operation.

 

What are Test and Reset

This control signal is used by the processor itself when there is a deadlock. A deadlock can be defined as when one application or two devices are trying to gain attention from the processor.

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