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COMPUTER SYSTEM CASING

Computer System Casing is the metal cover that covers the entire computer, that is the motherboard.  There are two types of system casing.  We have Desktop Casing and the tower casing.

Computer System Casing is the metal cover that covers the entire computer, that is the motherboard.  There are two types of system casing.  We have Desktop Casing and the tower casing.

Computer System Casing is the metal cover that covers the entire computer, that is the motherboard.  There are two types of system casing.  We have Desktop Casing and the tower casing.

 

Note:  The type of casing determines the type of motherboard it works with, for example, the A. T. X.  Motherboard work with the A. T. Casing while A. T. X casing work with A. T Mother Board.

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Contents

DESKTOP CASING

DESKTOP CASING

 

            This type of casing is the casing that uses or set on the desktop and the monitor is usually top of the casing the desktop casing has some disadvantages:

 

  1. The desktop casing generates a lot of heat because of the monitor is on top.
  1. The desktop casing does not allow more installation of hardware component like the tower casing but the desktop casing is cheaper than the tower casing.

TOWER CASING

TOWER CASING

            The tower casing is the type of casing that stands upright and is majority key beside the monitor.

            Three types of casing are listed below.

 

Medium Casing

This casing is less big than the mini casing.

Mini Casing

This casing is the smallest of the entire tower casing.

Full Tower Casing

  1. This is the biggest of the entire tower casing (Pentium).
  2. The MotherBoard has its full-tower because of the architectural design of the motherboard.

      When assembling a system, it is better to get a full tower casing, make sure that it is a match of the motherboard.  Every new casing comes with a new power park inside them.

THE ADVANTAGE OF DESKTOP CASING

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THE ADVANTAGE OF DESKTOP CASING

            The advantage of the desktop casing is that the desktop casing is cheaper than the tower casing because the disadvantage is that the desktop casing generates a lot of heat and it does not allow room for more installation of any component.

THE FASTNESS OF SYSTEM

  1. Processor Speed
  2. Bus
  3. The Cashe Memory
  4. A. M

 

NOTE:  About RAM (Random Access Memory)

 

            We have types of RAM

  1. Static RAM
  2. Dynamic RAM

Static RAM

Static RAM

Static RAM can be refreshed while the Dynamic RAM does not need any refreshment.

The type of RAM base on the connection is the motherboard.  There are two types of RAM base on the connection of the motherboard.  We have DIMM-RAM and SIMMS RAM.

C-RAM – (Single Inline Memory Module)

RAM is indirection heat of communication information flow into the RAM at the same time. This implies that C RAM allows inflow and outflow of date at once at a time. 

 

There are two types of C RAM base on the connection.  We have 30 pins and 72 pins.  That is how to know the type of C-RAM.         

D-RAM

D-RAM (Dual Inline Memory Module)

This is a type of RAM that allow outflows and inflows of data at the same time.

This implies that the D-RAM can communicate with the processor and can also communicate with the D-RAM at the same time.  The D-RAM has 168 pins connectors while some have 184 pins.

 

THE BIOS BASIC INPUT AND OUTPUT SYSTEM

THE BIOS BASIC INPUT AND OUTPUT SYSTEM

 BIOS is a chipset memory and i. e. very important in a computer system.  BIOS contain the manufacturer information which is needed for booting case on the BIOS that does not display any key to enter the BIOS setup once there is problem, for example, Compaq does not provide any key to enter the BIOS setup except there is a problem, but if you want to enter the touch (1) F1 (2) F2 (3) F3 and the delete key you can only enter the BIOS setup when your system is just booting.  Another following is found in the setup are (1) BIOS manufacturers name (2) onboard components (3) detection of the I. D. E device etc.

NOTE:  It should be noted that you can disable and enable, the following on processor booting.

The manufacturer information will be loaded to the BIOS and the RAM to the control unit which will hand over the booting in this situation to the operating system item booting will be loaded on the hard disk to the RAM.  This implies that on RAM on BIOS no bootable the information stored in the BIOS can be changed when changing the information.  You have to be very careful because wrong information can change the system not be boot so it is advisable to backup information stored by the BIOS using the third impurity plug shit so that if any information is wrongly set, all you need to do is to get back and input the information to the BIOS set-up.

 This determines what is used in the motherboard.  All the onboard that can be used on the system are program into the BIOS setup, because of this, a particular device that is not designed to work will not work in a BIOS system, for example, if the BIOS does not detect the USB (Universal Serial Bus) the BIOS can be upgraded under a special condition to accept the device that cannot configure, there are two way to configure the BIOS either frenching the RAM to upgrade the BIOS.

Without not changing the BIOS the fresh RAM is a memory integrated to some device, upgrading is allowed if you connect any device to the motherboard automatically the motherboard will register it in BIOS the second mother to upgrade the BIOS manufacturer website.  Go to the internet centre and browse the website.  Before doing that, you have to know the name of the BIOS and the version of the BIOS and download the file into your diskette, after doing that, create a bootable diskette.

BIOS LIN THIU BATTERY BIOS or MTTAN

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BIOS LIN THIU BATTERY BIOS or MTTAN

The battery is used to back up some of the information stored in the BIOS such as time and date also hard disk settings of the BIOS.  Cyl Battery tends to go weak like the ordinary battery the following are the lignum to know if the battery is weak.

 

  1. Date time will no longer be corrected

The hard disk will always fat when booting the system. This situation you have to detect your hard disk setting before your system can boot to the window, but if the falling of the hard disk continues to happen, the best option is to replace the BIOS with another one when replacing the BIOS confirms otherwise, it will not work.  For example, the common BIOS contain a battery that is found in the market is CR 2030.

(BIOS) BASIC INPUT AND OUTPUT SYSTEM

(BIOS) BASIC INPUT AND OUTPUT SYSTEM

BIOS is a clip set memory in a computer system where all manufacturer information been stored.  It enables the booting of a computer, once the BIOS is weak, a system cannot boot.  Everything in a system is been stored in the BIOS if it’s bad nothing can work.  If anything changes in the BIOS.

  • If anything affects the working of a system you can enter the BIOS setup when the computer is booting, however, some BIOS display keys to enter BIOS setup while some do not display any key unless there is problem e.g. company like Compaq do not provide any key to BIOS setup unless there is problem also anything disable in the BIOS disable it in the system.

WHAT IS EXPLANATION CARD AND TYPE

WHAT IS EXPLANATION CARD AND TYPE

Expansion Card is added to the motherboard which is used to increase the functions of the motherboard explanation card are also a casual board which are consist of integrated sequent to the board.

TYPES AND FUNCTION OF COMPUTER EXPLANATION CARD

TYPES AND FUNCTION OF COMPUTER EXPLANATION CARD

There are different kinds of the explanations card base on the function they perform.  The following are common expansion card.

  1. Motomidia Explanation Card
  2. Video Card (VGA)
  3. Input and Output (Interface Card)
  4. Communication Card

 

MOTOMIDIA EXPLANATION CARD

This explanation card allows moto media capability as watching television etc.  These are the following of moto media explanation card T. V. Firm card sound card.

VIDEO CARD

VIDEO CARD

A Video explanation card allows you to connect your monitor to the motherboard.  These are known as Video Card and the function of the video card to convert the digital-analogue which the monitor, used to display.  The following are the example of the Video Card.

  1. AGP Card (Accelerated Graphic Port)
  2. VGA (Video Graphic Adaptor)
  3. Video Encoder: Encoder allows you to connect your modem.

INTERFACE CARD OR YO CARD

INTERFACE CARD OR YO CARD

The interface card is commonly known as the (input and output card) the input card has the following port.

  1. Parallel Port
  2. Compaq Port
  3. D. C (Hand Disk Connector)

These are some motherboard that does not come with a hard disk connector.  In this situation, all you need is to get the interface card so that the hard disk and your floppy disk are to be connected to the YO Card.  Scope explanation is also known as interface card because it has its hard disk connector for connecting a scoring drive.  There is some motherboard on a cohesive interface on board, but the SCSI hard disk can be SCSI card.

COMMUNICATION EXPLANATION CARD

COMMUNICATION EXPLANATION CARD

Communication allows the transformation of data from one computer to another, are known as communication explanation card.

  1. Internet Modals Card
  2. Internet Card etc.

RJ45, RJ11, ALL GO TO NETWORK CASHE MEMORY

RJ45, RJ11, ALL GO TO NETWORK CASHE MEMORY

 A result time a Unique form of memory has to build into P. C. especially in a Pentium Procession.  This is usually a small amount of fast memory that senses a processor from having to go to information on its need reputedly.  Thereby specifying up the rate of the processor. 

That act on basically, it works by looking at the last pieces of quite which data items will be required nest.  The cache memory faces data, i. e.  Speedy transfer of instruction from RAM to the processor.  It uses a technology 10 times faster than the RAM and it’s more expensive.

BIT IN COMPUTER MEMORY

BIT IN COMPUTER MEMORY

The bit in computer memory is usually grouped to form a large unit of information.  A bit of information is a group of 8 bits half a byte is referred to enable 4 bit.

A word is a group of a fixed number of bit in giving the number of bit world of giving computer is the word length of the computer and this may be as many as 64bit or as few 8bit also, the following stated large grouping of the bit are in common usage.

1024 byte = 1-kilo byte    Web

1024 byte = 1-kilo byte    Web

1024 kilobyte = 1 Megabyte MB

1024 Megabyte = 1 Gigabyte GB

1024 Gigabyte = 1 Terabyte TB

OPERATING SYSTEM (OS)

OPERATING SYSTEM (OS)

This is what makeup DOS (OS)

  1. Disk Operating System (DOS)
  2. File Handler
  3. Command Interpreter

 

  1. Device Handler: Containing s group of file or command which handle all the peripheral attack to the computer.  The peripheral includes the mouse, joystick, light pen, scanner and pen.
  2. File handler is a group of the file which allow the programmer to write a program that can handle as access fill by way of controlling them.
  3. Command Interpreter: Accept as implement command to ram.  Our program e.g. to coping to delete fill they interpret the command or the computer to use.

INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM

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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM

The fundamental goal of any computer is to execute a user program and to make the saving the usual problem easy to achieve each goal.  The computer was to develop but will do no hardware alone is not very easy to use the desired result.  These were lead to the development of an application program.  This various program required to contain a command operating system which includes control of input and output device hence the common function of controlling and allocation of resources in a single piece of software called the operating system.

This single piece of software help to overcome the stress of programming in the easily days, when the program has to go through a variety of precaution of resources leading allocation of various space transfer to our control etc. in a series of execution of a single programme operating system in simplest form can be desire as the program that act as intermediary (middle man) between the program (USER) of a computer and the resources of a computer hardware.  Without an operating system, the computer is useless because the operating system has some responsibility that performs to enable the component of the operating system to function normally.  The operating system performs the following duties in a computer system.

  1. It acts as coordinator of the activities of the software and the hardware.
  2. Also acts as the brain of the computer.
  3. Ability to resolve the conflict between the software and hardware.
  4. Able shares the resources between hardware and the software.

B. CONNECTORS

The classic connection, they go in two types, male and female.

  1. The male connector has pins
  2. The female connection does not have pins

    2B. The connection is the oldest and most classic type of connection. It is common to see.  The D. B. connection all over the back of the PC.  They are often different in size and a different position.  Almost all D. B Connector have Ehimb get screws, many D.B. connector does not get screwed in.

USES FOR D. B. CONNECTORS

USES FOR D. B. CONNECTORS

  1. Mouse Printer Joy Stick

The serial mouse is a D. B. 9 Connection (HAS NINE PINS) a parallel point used for the printer is a D. B. 25 (has 25 pins).

RJ CONNECTION

 We have two types of RJ Connection

  1. RJ-45 Connection
  2. RJ-11 is for the telephone connection

 

  1. RJ-45 connector are classically used in network
  2. RJ-11 allows you to connect your modern and telephone link. RJ-11 has RJ Connection – RJ-11 is for telephone

            Connection – RJ-45 is for network

UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS (USB)

UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS (USB)

       The connection is used for almost anything like printer, sound speaker, keyboard, mouse, flash drive etc.

DIN

PS/2 Connectors purple = keyboard green = mouse.  The reason why we give it PS/2 is that it comes from the 19805 computer.  AT Keyboard port (the old type) mini audio

FIREWIRE

Firewire is very popular because it is a super digital in evadable high-speed connection. A Firewire is a group in three.

NOTE:  V.D.U can only be connected to the female D.B connection

RAM AND PROCESSOR

Ram used the M.C.C (Memory Control Chip) M.C.C Memory.  Ram itself does not any direction to the external data bus.  Ram connect M.C.C designed with onboard socket reality M.C.C grabbed light device that can access any one particular and pass it to the external data bus (How do we tell the M.C.C which one we want) Dual Pipe Lining Pentium was the first procession with the dual pipeline and each processor goes along.  It creates what we know as a pipe.

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NOTE:  Number of Slate in pipeline indicate how powerful the C.P.U

            Control                     A. L. U                        F. L. U                                    Address

 

decide what arithmetic floating when data will do with and logic.

 

ABOUT THE M.C.C (Memory Control Chip)

          
  
RAM

 

 
  
 

M. C. C

 

 
C. P. U

Processor

 

  
IOIOO

OOIOI

 

    
 
 

 

 

                                    Cash                                                                

                                    Memory                                             

                                                                                                                                        

                                    From

 

           

            External                                E.D.B DATA                                     BUS

E.D.B (External Data Bus)

 

RAM itself does not have right to deliver message but it can only hold message for MCC to collect (Memory Controlling Chip) and M.C.C will collect the message from RAM and give to E.D.B (External Data Bus) then the processor will take the message from the E.D.B and the processor will display it to the V.D.U (Visual Display Unit) or Monitor.  These are the function of MCC, RAM and Processor.

 RAM to MCC to EDB to the processor.  Remember that the computer does not understand anything like ABCD.  It only understands things like IOOI, IIIOOO, OOOI, and OIOIIOI.  These are what the computer understands.

NOTE:  The Processor uses the cash memory to collect message from EDB to any device and this message pass through the pipeline.

SYSTEM RESOURCES

SYSTEM RESOURCES

The I/O (Input and Output) address provide a way for the computer to communicate directly to the device card. I/O port may be a single memory address or an address range as with I.R.Q and D.M.A Resources in each device is much assign conflict components do not overload.  We use I/O address to take everything in the computer.  I/O  address are a group of number that tells the device what to do,  similar to a device with different number C.P.U dial a number device look at it and tell it what to do.  I/O addresses have multiple numbers.  Each number is assigned to a device.  Each number is a different command.  The keyboard has only 4 commands e.g hard disk drive, floppy drive.

I.R.Q – Interrupt Request

D.M.A – Direct Memory Access I/O Address

            Every device has a number of I/O address assigned to it. The simple device just has a few I/O address complication. The device may have many I/O address nor can device share the same I/O address.

I.R.Q – Physical wire that allows the device to get the attention of the C.P.U only (is) are available for users.

D.M.A – Direct Memory Access very similar to IRQ, in that, they are physical wire.  There are (8) D.M.A channel only (7) is available.

 


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